Volume 8 - Issue 8 (July/August)

Article Number 1

The type species of Tetrapyrgos and Campanella (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) are redescribed and epitypified


Desjardin DE, Perry BA, Shay JE, Newman DS, Randrianjohany E

Received 23 May 2017
Accepted 22 June 2017
Published Online 02 July 2017
Corresponding Author Dennis E. Desjardin –ded@sfsu.edu

Tetrapyrgos atrocyanea, the type species of Tetrapyrgos, and Campanella buettneri, the type species of Campanella, are redescribed and epitypified based on recently collected material from Madagascar and Príncipe, respectively, supported with morphological and LSU, ITS sequences data. Line drawings, colour photographs, and comparisons with similar taxa are provided.

Keywords agarics – Campanella buettneri – fungal diversity – taxonomy – Tetrapyrgos atrocyanea
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Article Number 2

Comparison of antibacterial and antibiofilm activity properties of Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav. lichen extracts from different locations in Turkey


Özyiğitoğlu G, Açıkgöz B, Tahiroğlu G, Sesal NC

Received 10 January 2017
Accepted 05 February 2017
Published Online 06 July 2017
Corresponding Author Nüzhet Cenk Sesal – e-mail – csesal@marmara.edu.tr

The levels of bioactivity in lichens can change in response to environmental stress. For this reason, it was decided to compare the activity levels of Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav. (Parmeliaceae) samples collected from six different localities in Turkey and the factors that may be effective. We also questioned our opinion that antibacterial activity is not directly proportional to the effectiveness of the antibiotic. The in vitro antibacterial activity and antibiofilm effect of diethyl ether (DE) and chloroform-methanol-acetone (CMA) extracts of the lichen H. tubulosa were explored against two pathogenic microbial strains of Staphylococcus aureus-ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis-ATCC 29212. Antibacterial activity was screened by disk diffusion method through the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Biofilm inhibitory potency of the extracts was measured by spectrophotometrically.  Most of the tested extracts of H. tubulosa demonstrated inhibitory effects against S. aureus and E. faecalis as strong as antibiotics. Differences of the findings depending on locality, habitat and extract variables were evaluated. The most antibacterially active samples were from Bursa (Location 4 and 6), both DE and CMA extracts with MIC values of 100 μg/ml, did not show inhibition effect against the bacterial biofilm. CMA extract of the Bolu sample (Location 3) with lower antibacterial effect, significantly reduced biofilm formation of both strains measured with lower absorbance levels compared to control groups. This result confirms that the samples with low antibacterial activity have more inhibitory effect on biofilm formation. In addition, different results were obtained according to localities among the samples of the same lichen species. Environmental factors influence the active substances produced by lichens. The results of this study present evidences of antibiofilm potential as well as strong antibacterial effect of H. tubulosa as promising source of antibacterial drugs. 

Keywords Hypogymnia tubulosa – antibacterial activity – MIC ¬– antibiofilm activity
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Article Number 3

Epiphyllous fungi from Miocene deposits of the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (Central Poland)


Worobiec G, Worobiec E

Received 05 May 2017
Accepted 10 June 2017
Published Online 07 July 2017
Corresponding Author Grzegorz Worobiec – e-mail – g.worobiec@botany.pl

Fossil fungal fructifications were encountered during palynological investigation of the Miocene deposits of the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (Central Poland). Five fossil taxa similar to family Microthyriaceae (Phragmothyrites cf. lutosus (Dilcher) R.K. Kar & R.K. Saxena, Phragmothyrites sp. 1, Phragmothyrites sp. 2, Trichothyrites cf. hordlensis P.H. Smith, and Trichothyrites sp.) and one taxon (Callimothallus pertusus Dilcher) similar to extant anamorphic genus Mycoleptodiscus Ostaz. are reported. Callimothallus pertusus, Phragmothyrites cf. lutosus, Phragmothyrites sp. 2, and Trichothyrites cf. hordlensis are new for the fossil mycota of Poland. The presence of Callimothallus pertusus points to warm palaeoclimatic conditions which is confirmed by previously obtained data from plant macro and microremains. 

Keywords fungal fructifications – Neogene – palaeoecology – Poland – taxonomy
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Article Number 4

Nutritional and nutraceutical characterization of three wild edible mushrooms from Haryana, India


Mridu, Atri NS

Received 06 May 2017
Accepted 22 May 2017
Published Online 14 July 2017
Corresponding Author Mridu – e-mail – mriduphd@gmail.com

Mushrooms are included in the category of functional foods due to their culinary and pharmaceutical properties. In the present investigation, three wild edible mushrooms include, Calocybe gambosa (Fr.) Donk (PUN 3538), Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. (PUN 3539), Podaxis pistillaris (L.) Fr. (PUN 7151) collected from Haryana (India) were analyzed for their proximate composition and bioactive compounds. Among these, L. squarrosulus was found having highest dietary fiber (38.38±1.96g/100g) and ash content (11.4±0.55g/100g) on dry weight basis in comparison to the other two species evaluated. C. gambosa revealed the presence of maximum protein content (20.22±0.07/100g dw). Out of the evaluated species, P. pistillaris was evaluated for the presence of maximum levels of fat content (1.97±0.16 /100g dw), total carbohydrates (77.79±0.39g/100g dw) and energy value (387.05±0.28 kCal/100g dw). Amongst the Nutraceutical components, C. gambosa has been evaluated to possess maximum quantity of phenols (1.53±0.06mg/g dw), flavonoids (1.27±0.04 mg/g dw) and alkaloids (1.85±0.07 mg/100g dw). Other Nutraceutical components including steroids (1.82±0.03mg/100g dw), β-carotene (4.68±0.02μg/g dw) and lycopene (1.23±0.01μg/g dw) were present in maximum proportion in L. squarrosulus while P. pistillaris contained least quantity of all these bioactive compounds amongst the three-evaluated species.

Keywords Anti-oxidant- FAO/WHO - Health- Monsoon - Sporocarps
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Article Number 5

Taxonomy of the south Brazilian species of Protostropharia (Strophariaceae, Agaricales)


Seger C, Gallego JC, Takiuchi E and Cortez VG

Received 29 March 2017
Accepted 16 May 2017
Published Online 14 July 2017
Corresponding Author Cristiane Seger – e-mail – crizseger@yahoo.com.br

Three species of Protostropharia are reported in South Brazil: P. alcis ssp. austrobrasiliensis, P. dorsipora and P. semiglobata. Morphological variations are described and discussed for P. alcis ssp. austrobrasiliensis and P. dorsipora, as well sequences of the ITS region of rDNA, which were compared to other members of the genus. A key for the southern Brazilian species and photographs of macro- and microscopic features are furnished.

Keywords coprophilous agarics, fungal barcode, mycobiota, taxonomy
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Article Number 6

Tar spot fungi from Thailand


Tamakaew N, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Cheewangkoon R

Received 06 July 2017
Accepted 10 July 2017
Published Online 18 July 2017
Corresponding Author Ratchadawan Cheewangkoon – e-mail – ratchadawan.c@cmu.ac.th; ratcha.222@gmail.com

Phyllachora species are responsible for leaf tar spot disease in a wide range of hosts, worldwide. We are studying the phyllachoraceous taxa in northern Thailand. In this paper, we report on two taxa collected from symptomatic graminicolous leaves collected during 2015-2016. The taxa are shown to be novel based on morphological and sequence data and introduced here as Phyllachora thysanolaenae collected from Thysanolaena maxima and Phyllachora vetiveriana from Chysopogon zizanioides. Descriptions, illustrations and molecular data are provided for the new species which are discussed with comparable taxa.



Keywords Phyllachora – tar spot
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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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