Recent Papers

Volume 8 Issue 10 (November/December)

8. Novel fungal species of Phaeosphaeriaceae with an asexual/sexual morph connection.
Karunarathna A et al. (2017)

7. Nomenclatural and identification pitfalls of endophytic mycota based on DNA sequence analyses of ribosomal and protein genes phylogenetic markers: A taxonomic dead end?
Nomenclatural and identification pitfalls of endophytic mycota based on DNA sequence analyses of ribosomal and protein genes phylogenetic markers: A taxonomic dead end? (2017)

6. Mycosphere notes 51–101. Revision of genera in Perisporiopsidaceae and Pseudoperisporiaceae and other Ascomycota genera incertae sedis
Boonmee S et al. (2017)

5. Mycosphere Essays 20: Therapeutic potential of Ganoderma species: Insights into its use as traditional medicine
Hapuarachchi et al. (2017)

4. The edible wide mushrooms of Agaricus section Bivelares from Western China
Zhang et al. (2017)

3. Metabolomics reveals changes in metabolite concentrations and correlations during sexual development of Eurotium cristatum (synonym: Aspergillus cristatus)
Ren et al. (2017)

2. Neophyllachora gen nov. (Phyllachorales), three new species of Phyllachora from Poaceae and resurrection of Polystigmataceae (Xylariales)
Dayarathne et al. (2017)

1. Lignicolous freshwater fungi from China I : Aquadictyospora lignicola gen. et sp. nov. and new record of Pseudodictyosporium wauense from northwestern Yunnan Province
Li et al. (2017)

Volume 8 Issue 6 (SI Tropical Wood Degrading Fungi)

12. Two new species of aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) from southern China.
Huang FC et al. (2017)

11. Aegis boa (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) a new neotropical genus and species based on morphological data and phylogenetic evidences
Gómez-Montoya et al. (2017)

Volume 8 - Issue 10 (November/December)


Article Number 1
Title

Lignicolous freshwater fungi from China I : Aquadictyospora lignicola gen. et sp. nov. and new record of Pseudodictyosporium wauense from northwestern Yunnan Province

Authors

Li WL, Luo ZL, Liu JK, Bhat DJ, Bao DF, Su HY, Hyde KD

Received 18 September 2017
Accepted 06 October 2017
Published Online 08 November 2017
Corresponding Author Hong-Yan Su – e-mail – suhongyan16@163.com
Abstract

This is the first in a series of papers on lignicolous freshwater fungi from China. In this paper, eight fresh collections of taxa of Dictyosporiaceae from submerged wood in freshwater are characterized based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, LSU and TEF1α sequence data. A new monotypic genus Aquadictyospora, with A. lignicola as the type species is introduced based on its distinct morphology and evidences from molecular phylogeny. In addition, detailed description and illustration of Pseudodictyosporium wauense from the fresh collection are provided and it is a new record for China.

Keywords Asexual fungi – Dictyosporiaceae – Phylogeny – Taxonomy
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Article Number 2
Title

Neophyllachora gen nov. (Phyllachorales), three new species of Phyllachora from Poaceae and resurrection of Polystigmataceae (Xylariales)

Authors

Dayarathne MC, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Jones EBG, Goonasekara ID, Bulgakov TS, Al-Sadi AM, Hyde KD, Lumyong S and McKenzie EHC

Received 12 October 2017
Accepted 14 October 2017
Published Online 08 November 2017
Corresponding Author Lumyong S and McKenzie EHC – e-mail – scboi009@gmail.com, mckenziee@landcareresearch.co.nz
Abstract

We collected six “tar spot” disease specimens from various hosts and these were subjected to morpho-phylogenetic studies. In this paper, a new genus, Neophyllachora is introduced to accommodate N. cerradensis, N. myrciae, N. myrciariae, N. subcircinans and N. trucantispora, which are related to Phyllachora species but constitutes an independent strongly supported monophyletic clade within Phyllachoraceae of the Phyllachorales. Three novel Phyllachora species; P. chloridis, P. cynodonticola and P. panicicola on Poaceae are also introduced. Phenotypic comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of partial SSU, LSU and ITS sequence data with homologous taxa, confirm the placement of the novel species in Phyllachoraceae. The family Polystigmataceae is re-established to accommodate Polystigma within the order Xylariales. The asexual morph of Polystigma rubrum was re-collected from Russia and is provided as a reference specimen with a description, illustrations and molecular data. Further studies with multiple gene analysis are recommended to provide a natural and stable classification system for members of Phyllachorales.

Keywords biotrophs – phylogeny – tar spots – taxonomy
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Article Number 3
Title

Metabolomics reveals changes in metabolite concentrations and correlations during sexual development of Eurotium cristatum (synonym: Aspergillus cristatus)

Authors

Ren CG, Tan YM, Ren XX, Liu YX and Liu ZY

Received 24 April 2017
Accepted 06 November 2017
Published Online 08 November 2017
Corresponding Author Zuo-Yi Liu – e-mail – gzliuzuoyi@163.com
Abstract

Eurotium cristatum is the main probiotic fungus involved in fermentation of Chinese Fuzhuan brick tea, and the amount of E. cristatum is an important indicator of tea quality. Sexual development of E. cristatum consists of three main stages, hypha and ascogonium (at 36 hours post-inoculation), cleistothecium formation (at 48 hours), and cleistothecium ripening (at 72 hours), and each stage exhibits a unique metabolite profile. In this study, developmental changes were analyzed by GC–MS based untargeted metabolomics. Ninety-nine metabolites involved in multiple biochemical pathways were identified. Principal component analysis separated developing E. cristatum into 36, 48 and 72 hour groups. Hierarchical cluster analyses showed that the relative contents of organic acids and amino acids peaked at 36 hours and decreased thereafter, while alcohol and carbohydrate levels peaked at 48−72 hours. Statistical analysis revealed 401 significant metabolite−metabolite correlations (Pearson’s |r|>0.8 at a false discovery rate ≤ 0.05), of which 213 were positive and 188 negative. The early increases in organic acid and amino acid metabolites as well as certain phosphate and amine metabolites favor ascogonium formation. Conversely, increased alcohol and carbohydrate concentrations favor cleistothecium formation. These results provide a foundation for further exploration of the biochemical mechanism underlying sexual development in E. cristatum.

Keywords Eurotium cristatum – Fungus – Metabolite – metabolite correlation – Metabolomic
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Article Number 4
Title

The edible wide mushrooms of Agaricus section Bivelares from Western China

Authors

Zhang MZ, Li GJ, Dai RC, Xi YL, Wei SL and Zhao RL

Received 01 June 2017
Accepted 20 September 2017
Published Online 13 November 2017
Corresponding Author Rui-Lin Zhao and Sheng-Long Wei – e-mail – zhaorl@im.ac.cn and 13993660298@163.com
Abstract

Agaricus is a genus of macrofungi containing species with highly edible and medicinal values. A mushroom survey was recently carried out in Qilian Mountain National Natural Reserve, in Gansu Province of China, and yielded 21 Agaricus specimens. The morphological examination and phylogenetic analysis based on four-gene sequences from those specimens were conducted. The result shows they belong to four species in A. section Bivelares: A. sinotetrasporus sp. nov. and A. qilianensis sp. nov. are new species for science; A. devoniensis is a new record from China; and the famous button mushroom, A. bisporus is found in the wild. All of them are described and illustrated in details. A brief comparison with similar taxa or previous records are addressed too.

Keywords Agaricaceae – Multi–gene – Phylogeny – Taxonomy
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Article Number 5
Title

Mycosphere Essays 20: Therapeutic potential of Ganoderma species: Insights into its use as traditional medicine

Authors

Hapuarachchi KK, Cheng CR, Wen TC, Jeewon R and Kakumyan P

Received 14 August 2017
Accepted 13 November 2017
Published Online 16 November 2017
Corresponding Author Ting-Chi Wen– e-mail – tingchiwen@yahoo.com
Abstract

The genus Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae) has a long history in traditional medicine to improve longevity and health in Asia. Ganoderma has been widely used in multiple therapeutic activities as well as dietary supplements to prevent and treat many diseases. Several classes of bioactive substances have been isolated and identified from Ganoderma, such as polysaccharides, triterpenoids, nucleosides, sterols, fatty acids, protein and alkaloids. There are numerous research publications, which report the abundance and variety of biological actions initiated by the metabolites of Ganoderma. Investigation on different metabolic activities of Ganoderma species has been performed both in vitro and in vivo. In many cases, however, it has been questioned whether Ganoderma is solely a nourishment supplement for wellbeing or merely a helpful "medication" for restorative purposes. There has been no any conclusive report of human trials using Ganoderma species as a direct control agent for diseases. In addition, there is no evidence supporting the usage of Ganoderma species (excluding G. lucidum) as potential supplements for cancer or other diseases in humans since no preclinical trials have been performed up to date. In this review, the beneficial medicinal properties of several species of Ganoderma (excluding G. lucidum) and their secondary metabolites are discussed. Ganoderma species can be used as a therapeutic drug, but more direct scientific evidence should be made available in the future. The efficiency of Ganoderma in clinical treatments should be substantiated with more biomedical research and their true impact assessed on human health with more standardized clinical evaluations so that the feasibility of biologically active extracts of Ganoderma species in alternative treatments can be recommended. 

Keywords clinical evidence – medicinal properties – secondary metabolites
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Article Number 6
Title

Mycosphere notes 51–101. Revision of genera in Perisporiopsidaceae and Pseudoperisporiaceae and other Ascomycota genera incertae sedis

Authors

Boonmee S, Phookamsak R, Hongsanan S, Doilom M, Mapook A, McKenzie EHC, Bhat DJ, Hyde KD

Received 19 August 2017
Accepted 13 November 2017
Published Online 22 November 2017
Corresponding Author Kevin D Hyde – e-mail – kdhyde3@gmail.com
Abstract

This is the second in a series, Mycosphere notes, wherein we provide notes on various fungal genera. In this set of notes we deal with genera of the families Perisporiopsidaceae and Pseudoperisporiaceae. These families have traditionally accommodated taxa associated with dead and living leaves of mostly tropical plants and comprised pathogens, saprobes or epiphytes. Most genera are poorly understood with only brief Latin descriptions, but molecular sequence data are needed to establish their taxonomic placements. In this study, 50 genera and 51 taxa are re-examined and their placements at the family level discussed. Thirteen new families Alinaceae, Balladynaceae, Cleistosphaeraceae, Dysrhynchisceae, Hyalomeliolinaceae, Lizoniaceae, Nematotheciaceae, Neoparodiaceae, Phaeodimeriellaceae, Pododimeriaceae, Polyclypeolinaceae, Stomatogeneceae and Toroaceae are introduced and Dimeriaceae is reinstated in this paper. One new species, Phaeostigme alchorneae is introduced. Nine genera are transferred to other families. However, fresh collections, epitypification or reference specimens including DNA sequence data, are required to confirm their phylogenetic placements.

Keywords Alinaceae – Balladynaceae – Botryosphaeriaceae – Cleistosphaeraceae – Coccoideaceae – Dimeriaceae – Dysrhynchisceae – Epibryaceae – Hyalomeliolinaceae – Lizoniaceae – Massarinaceae – Mycosphaerellaceae – Myriangiaceae – Nematotheciaceae – Neoparodiaceae – Opegraphaceae – Parmulariaceae – Phaeodimeriellaceae – Phaeosphaeriaceae – Pododimeriaceae – Polyclypeolinaceae – Schizothyriaceae – Stomatogeneceae – Teratosphaeriaceae – Toroaceae – Venturiaceae
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Article Number 7
Title

Nomenclatural and identification pitfalls of endophytic mycota based on DNA sequence analyses of ribosomal and protein genes phylogenetic markers: A taxonomic dead end?

Authors

Jeewon R, Wanasinghe DN, Rampadaruth S, Puchooa D, Zhou Li-Gang, Liu Ai-Rong, Wang Hong-Kai

Received 10 July 2017
Accepted 20 August 2017
Published Online 23 November 2017
Corresponding Author Hong-Kai Wang – e-mail – hkwang@zju.edu.cn
Abstract

Fungal endophytes are considered ecologically important microorganisms, but their role is the subject of much speculation and the methods and approaches by which endophytes are detected and identified give rather different results. In this study, we isolated a specific endophyte from a traditional medicinal plant and investigated its phylogenetic relationships with other known fungi. Microscopic examination and cultural details of the strain are documented, but these did not provide adequate data to substantially identify the species, either to a genus or species level. To overcome this limitation, six different gene regions (SSU, LSU, ITS, TEF, RBP2 & β-Tubulin) were amplified, sequenced and analysed phylogenetically (either in individual or concatenated datasets) to identify and investigate the placement of this endophyte at different taxonomic ranks. Results obtained from the cultural morphology were insufficient to identify the species. DNA sequence analyses (either single gene or combined gene analyses) revealed that this endophyte belongs to the order Pleosporales, class Dothideomycetes. However, an accurate establishment of its generic or even familial position is unresolved and the problems associated with our current system of assigning endophytes to a particular rank are discussed.

Keywords Dioscorea zingiberensis – endophyte – multigene phylogeny – Pleosporales – taxonomy
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Article Number 8
Title

Novel fungal species of Phaeosphaeriaceae with an asexual/sexual morph connection.

Authors

Karunarathna A, Papizadeh M, Senanayake IC, Jeewon R, Phookamsak R, Goonasekara ID, Wanasinghe DN, Wijayawardene NN, Amoozegar MA, Shahzadeh Fazeli SA, Camporesi E, Hyde KD, Weerahewa HLD, Lumyong S, McKenzie EHC

Received 04 October 2017
Accepted 13 November 2017
Published Online 23 November 2017
Corresponding Author EHC McKenzie – e-mail – mckenziee@landcareresearch.co.nz
Abstract

We are studying Dothideomycetes from different hosts in different geographical regions and have introduced new taxa from China, Iran and Italy. In this paper, we introduce Yunnanensis gen. nov. on Poaceae from Yunnan Province, in China, to accommodate Y. phragmitis sp. nov. Neosetophoma iranianum sp. nov. recovered from soil in Iran is also introduced and a sexual morph of Wojnowicia dactylidis on Asperula sp. (Rubiaceae) collected in Italy is also reported. DNA sequence based phylogenies (ribosomal gene) are also generated to infer potential taxonomic relationships. Yunnanensis is morphologically distinct from other genera in Phaeosphaeriaceae in having ascomata with evenly thickened walls comprising with textura angularis and textura angularis to textura prismatica inner layers, broadly cylindrical to cylindric-clavate asci, muriform ascospores with a mucilaginous sheath and a coelomycetous asexual state with muriform conidia. Phylogeny also supports Yunnanensis as a novel genus basal to Neosetophoma. Neosetophoma iranianum is distinct from other species in having subglobose, ovoid to tear-drop shaped transversely septate;, biseptate to triseptate conidia. Neosetophoma iranianum is closely related to N. lunariae but DNA sequence data differences are sufficient to segregate them as two species. Another interesting finding are the asexual/sexual morph connections in Yunnanensis phragmitis and Wojnowiciella dactylidis. All novel taxa investigated herein belong to the family Phaeosphaeriaceae.

Keywords Dothideomycetes – graminicolous fungi – muriform – Neosetophoma – Pleosporales – soil fungi –Yunnanensis – Wojnowiciella
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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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